infografía reported speech estilo indirecto
infografía reported speech estilo indirecto

Algunas veces alguien dice algo y más tarde, tal vez queremos contarle a alguien lo que esta persona nos ha dicho.

Para cambiar un discurso del estilo directo al estilo indirecto, antes que nada, cabe definir el tipo de la oración  ante la cual nos encontramos en cada momento (declaración, pregunta, petición/orden, sugerencia, etc.). Cada una de ellas formará el estilo indirecto de un modo distinto.

Seguidamente procederemos a su modificación acorde al funcionamiento de cada una de ellas.

  1. DECLARACIONES (STATEMENTS)

    1. SAY vs TELL: introduciremos la oraciones bien mediante el verbo say (sin objeto) o tell (con objeto)
      1. Pepito said (that) he was very happy.
      2. Pepito told me that he was very happy.
    2. CAMBIAREMOS EL TIEMPO VERBAL, GENERALMENTE A UNO ANTERIOR (CON SAID/TOLD).
      1. Pepito: I’m very happy. – Pepito said (that) he was very happy.
      2. Cuando usemos say o tell en presente, no será necesario el cambio.

 

TIEMPOS VERBALES

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
SIMPLE FORMS
Simple Present Simple Past
Simple Past Past Perfect
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
will would
PROGRESSIVE FORMS
am/are/is + -ing was/were+ -ing
was/were + -ing had been + -ing
has been + -ing
had been + -ing

 

 

  1. PREGUNTAS

    1. Para introducir preguntas, solemos usar el verbo ask (asked), pero también enquire, expresiones como “he wanted to to know…
    2. DECIDIREMOS SI SE TRATA DE UNA PREGUNTA DE RESPUESTA YES/NO o UNA WH- QUESTION(RESPUESTA ABIERTA)
      1. -YES/NO – Are you at home? -Yes, I am.
      2. -What did you do yesterday? -I watched TV.
    3. CAMBIAREMOS EL TIEMPO VERBAL, GENERALMENTE A UNO ANTERIOR.
    4. La pregunta (Aux-S-V-O)pasará a adoptar una estructura afirmativa (S-V-O)

YES/NO QUESTIONS IF/WHETHER + ESTRUCTURA AFIRMATIVA

Example: ‘Are you at home?’, asked Sam.

AUXILIAR SUJETO VERBO OBJETO(S)
Are You at home.
Do They Smoke?

 

Sam asked if I was at home.

REPORTING VERB NEXO SUJETO VERBO OBJETO(S)
Sam asked if/whether I was at home.
I wanted to know if/whether they smoked.

 

WH- QUESTIONS à WH- + ESTRUCTURA AFIRMATIVA

Example: ‘Are you at home?’, asked Sam.

P. INTERROG. AUXILIAR SUJETO VERBO OBJETO(S)
What did you do yesterday?

 

Sam asked if I was at home.

REPORTING VERB P. INTERROG. SUJETO VERBO OBJETO(S)
Sam asked what I had done the day before.

 

  1. ÓRDENES Y PETICIONES (COMMANDS AND REQUESTS) Verbos en imperativo.

    1. ORDERED/TOLD + OBJETO + INFINITIVO CON “TO”. En esta modalidad no tenemos que cambiar el tiempo verbal, pero si el resto de elementos que sea necesario modificar.

 

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
‘Please, open your suitcase’. The policeman told us to open our suitcase.
Don’t tell Sam, please.’ Susan asked me not to tell Sam.

 

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO Y LUGAR

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
this evening that evening
today/this day that day
these days those days
now then
a week ago a week before
last weekend the weekend before / the previous weekend
next week the following week
tomorrow the next/following day
here there

 

PRONOMBRES

 

Estudia estos ejemplos:

  1. I work in a factory’, she said to the interviewer. – She said to the interviewer (that) she worked in a factory.
  2. She works in a shop’. – She said she worked in a shop.
  3. We work in the best restaurant in town’, they told me. – They told me they worked in the best restaurant in town.
  4. It’s snowing’, Tom said – Tom said (that) it was snowing.
  5. My friends told me: ‘you’re the best’. My friends told me (that) I was the best.
DIRECT   INDIRECT
1 I 3 HE/SHE
WE THEY
2 YOU 1/3 I/WE/HE/SHE//IT/THEY
3 HE/SHE/IT 3 HE/SHE/IT
THEY THEY

 

ALGUNAS REGLAS Y TRUCOS

  1. Cambia siempre la 1ª persona según el “reporting pronoun”:
    1. I work in a factory’, she said to the interviewer. – She said to the interviewer (that) she worked in a factory.
  2. Cambia la 2ª persona según el “objeto”, es decir, la persona a la que se dirige el hablante (said to/told me/you/him/her/it/us/them).
    1. My friends told me: ‘you’re the best’. My friends told me (that) I was the best.
    2. My friends told him: ‘you’re the best’. My friends told him (that) he was the best.
  3. No cambies nunca la 3ª persona.
    1. She works in an shop’. – She said she worked in a shop.
    2. They work in an shop’. – They said they worked in a shop.

 

REPORTING VERBS

 VERBOS + “THAT”

‘Let’s go to the cinema’. – David suggested that we go to the cinema.

‘We’re going to get married’ – They announced that they were going to get married.

add admit agree announce
answer argue boast claim
comment complain confirm consider
deny doubt estimate explain
fear feel insist mention
observe persuade propose remark
remember repeat reply report reveal
say state suggest suppose
tell think understand warn

VERBO + “THAT” O INFINITIVO CON “TO”

‘I decided that I would study more often’. – I decided to study more often.

decide expect guarantee hope
promise swear threaten

 

 

VERBOS + “THAT” + (SHOULD) SUJETO + INFINITIVO SIN TO

‘I think that you should insist’. – She recommended that I (should) insist.

advise beg demand insist
prefer propose recommend request
suggest

 

VERBOS + PARTÍCULA INTERROGATIVA + ORACIÓN

We explained them what to do.

decide describe discover discuss
explain forget guess imagine
know learn realise remember
reveal say see suggest
teach tell think understand
wonder

 

 

VERBO + OBJETO + INFINITIVO CON “TO

‘You shouldn’t smoke’ – He advised me not to smoke.

advise ask beg command
forbid instruct invite teach
tell warn

 

DESCARGA REPORTED SPEECH – ESTILO INDIRECTO, TU TEORÍA PARA LLEVAR